DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2016/B32/S13.060


C.C. Durau, I. Radulov, A. Berbecea
Wednesday 7 September 2016 by Libadmin2016

References: 16th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2016, www.sgem.org, SGEM2016 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-62-9 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 28 - July 6, 2016, Book3 Vol. 2, 455-460 pp

Iron is an essential trace element for plant life, playing an important role both structurally and functionally. It is found in plants in the form of inorganic and organic combinations, in relatively small amount, 0.01 - 0.5%.
The plants absorb the iron in the form of Fe2 + ion, and in small amounts in the form of Fe3 +. Once entered in plants, iron is distinguished by poor mobility of tissues and organs; iron accumulated in the first leaves formats cannot be reused, if necessary, the young vegetative organs. Iron deficiency is a limiting factor of plant growth. Iron is present at high quantities in soils, but its availability to plants is usually very low, and therefore iron deficiency is a common problem.
Iron toxicity is primarily pH related and occurs where the soil pH has dropped sufficiently to create an excess of available iron. The visible symptoms of iron toxicity are likely to be a deficiency of another nutrient. Iron toxicity can also occur when Zinc is deficient, or the soil is in a "reduced" condition caused by very wet or flooded conditions. Excess Fe can result in dark green foliage, stunted growth of tops and roots, dark brown to purple leaves on some plants.
Soil to plant transfer of heavy metals is the major path way of animal exposure to metal contamination. The present paper presents measurement of iron level in the soil collected from five different localities in western part of Romania, as well as in grassland plants ( Poa pratensis L., Lolium perenne L., Lotus corniculatus L.,) grown on the soil and determination of transfer factor of these element to evaluate potential health effect.
Iron determination was made by wet digestion. From the filtrate the concentration of iron is read directly by the atomic absorption spectrophotometer, at a wavelength of 285 nm. Chemical analyses were performed in three replications and the mean values are presented. The concentrations of all the measured elements are expressed as g/kg of dry weight. Limit of detection for determined macronutrients was: 0.001 ppm.
Studied soils have low and medium soluble iron supply. The amount of iron determined in Lolium perenne L. species varies between 178 and 277 mg·kg-1 , for Lotus corniculatus L. species iron values obtained after plant samples analysis were ranged between 203 and 253 mg·kg-1. In Poa pratensis L. species case, iron content values are ranged between 122 and 369 mg·kg-1. The transfer factor of iron from soil in plant has values between 0.300 – 0.600.
Iron absorption can be reduced under anaerobic conditions or in the presence of an excess of heavy metals in soil. Also, the application of excess phosphate fertilizers can cause iron deficiency. As between ions Mn 2+, Cu 2+ and Fe 2+ exists the phenomenon of antagonism presence in excess of the first two ions will cause poor absorption of iron.

Keywords: iron, transfer, soil, plant

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