DBPapers
DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2016/B32/S13.054

THE MODIFICATION OF SOME FEATURES OF SOILS LOCATED NEARBY CHEMICAL PLANT CRAIOVA ZONE THAT IS AFFECTED BY NOXIOUS SUBSTANCES

C. Popescu
Wednesday 7 September 2016 by Libadmin2016

References: 16th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2016, www.sgem.org, SGEM2016 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-62-9 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 28 - July 6, 2016, Book3 Vol. 2, 409-416 pp

ABSTRACT
The chemical plant from Craiova, previously named Doljchim, has functioned for 40 years, since 1964 till 2010 when it stopped the producing of chemicals. This chemical plant is 15 km away from Craiova city, in the same area with the Power Plant of Isalnita which still works in normal parameters.
These two facilities have constantly polluted the air and the nearby soil. The soil pollution by air borne pollutants refers to the action of these substances on the soil from vicinity of the chemical plant and the power plant. The intensity of pollution (the pollution degree) decreases and the affected surface increases along with the height of the smoke towers and the affected area is larger.
Taking account of these considerations, in the present paper we will present the way the air borne pollutants from the chemical plant of Craiova and from the power plant of Isalnita have influenced the features of the nearby soils.
The installations from the chemical plant of Craiova, by the specificity of the technologies that are applied and by raw materials that are used have constituted pollutant factors, releasing in atmosphere by controlled and not controlled sources, powders, nitrous acid, phosphoric acid, ammonia, nitrous oxides, fluorine, etc.
These noxious substances have had a strong impact on all components of the environment (soil, air, surface water and ground water).
In this respect, there were studied the soils from 16 points located at different distances away from the pollution sources.
The gases and the powders that are released in time by chemical plant of Craiova have contributed to the changing of soil reaction, to the increasing of the concentration of hydrogen ions within the soil colloidal complex and to the decreasing of the bases saturation degree.
The intensity of modifications depends of the direction of noxious substances movement and of the distance from the chemical plant. On southern and south - western directions the modifications of soil features are more reduced than northern and north – east directions due to the air currents. Within the studied area the air currents blow on north and north – east directions. Also, with longer distances away from the smoke towers the influence of the noxious substances decreased.
Stronger influence was recorded with sandy soils because the soil colloidal complex is scarcer and the soil buffering capacity is more reduced.
The pollution process from the studied area was increased by relative high concentrations of nitrates, nitrites and fluorine at the soil surface.

Keywords: soil, noxious, pollution, texture, pH, hydrolytic acidity, degree of saturation in bases, nitrates, nitrites.

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