DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2015/B32/S13.026


T. Rusu, P.I. Moraru, A. Ioan Pop, T. Salagean, B.M. Duda
Thursday 24 September 2015 by Libadmin2015

References: 15th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2015, www.sgem.org, SGEM2015 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-37-7 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 18-24, 2015, Book3 Vol. 2, 191-198 pp

In Romania, conservation agriculture is applied to approx. 10% of arable lands and includes a range of complementary agricultural practices: (i) minimum soil tillage (through a system of reduced tillage or no-tillage) to preserve the structure, fauna and soil organic matter; (ii) permanent soil cover (cover crops, residues and mulches) to protect the soil and help to remove and control weeds; (iii) various combinations and rotations of the crops which stimulate the micro-organisms in the soil and controls pests, weeds and plant diseases. The study was to determine different soil tillage and weed control methods on weeding and numbers of weed seeds in the soil, in the case of wheat, maize and soybean crops. Dicotyledonous perennial weeds species causes special problems because of its ability to reproduce both through seeds but particularly through vegetative propagation, and also because its relative tolerance to numerous herbicides. Extending new tillage systems, conservative systems specific to conservative sustainable agriculture, is a difficult task to accomplish under the circumstances of strong dicotyledonous perennial weed infestation. Convolvulus arvensis L. is one of the most dangerous perennial dicotyledonous weeds when applying minimum tillage systems. A research study was conducted in the pedoclimate of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, investigating the control of C. arvensis by minimum tillage. The goal was to determine the relationship between soil tillage system and herbicide on wheat, maize and soybeans. Except for the soil tillage system, all other variables were held constant for a 3-year crop rotation. The use of minimum tillage systems caused, at the end of a 3 year crop rotation, the increase of the C. arvensis pervasion in all three crops: 11.2-39.1% for soybeans, 0.9-4.2% for wheat, and 11.9-24.4% for maize. The occurrence of C. arvensis seeds in the soil increased to 169% under the disk + rotary harrow minimum tillage system, with 77% of those seeds located in the upper 10 cm of the soil profile. Total weed density was significantly lower under the conventional tillage than under the minimum tillage system. Related to conventional soil tillage system, the productions registered in minimum tillage system represented 93-99% in wheat, 89-97% in maize, 103-112% in soybean. The main benefit of the conventional tillage is a highly important decline of perennial weeds.

Keywords: soil tillage, perennial weeds, Convolvulus arvensis L., weeds seeds.

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