DBPapers
DOI: 10.5593/SGEM2014/B12/S2.036

DELTA OF THE KLODNICA RIVER IN THE DZIERZNO DUZE RESERVOIR – A CASE OF NATURAL RESPONSE TO HUMAN IMPACT ON LAND RELIEF (SOUTHERN POLAND))

M. Rzetala
Wednesday 1 October 2014 by Libadmin2014

References: 14th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2014, www.sgem.org, SGEM2014 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7105-08-7 / ISSN 1314-2704, June 19-25, 2014, Book 1, Vol. 2, 275-282 pp

ABSTRACT
The formation of several thousand artificial water bodies in the Upper Silesia region (southern Poland) resulted in the emergence of new types of morphogenetic processes that drive the morphological evolution of depressions. Against the background of previously analysed delta areas in Poland, deltas within water bodies in the Upper Silesia region are relatively new objects of study, which are particularly important to global geomorphological research owing to the fact that the area where they are present is a model example of human impact on the natural environment. This makes it possible to conduct studies that are unique due to the peculiar features of those deltas that provide evidence of spontaneous natural response to anthropogenic changes in land relief resulting from diverse but sustained human impact. The most spectacular such delta in terms of size is the Kłodnica River delta that developed in the area where the river flows into the Dzierżno Duże Reservoir. Owing to the fact that the Dzierżno Duże Reservoir, which has a capacity of more than 90 million m3, is situated in an urban/industrial catchment (the western part of the Upper Silesian conurbation) and functions as a sedimentation tank for the polluted Kłodnica River, a delta formed which consists of sewage sludge and fine coal. The delta has a surface area of more than 1 km2; the size of the section that is situated above the water level and dries periodically varies depending on the water stage. The volume of the delta alone is estimated at slightly more than 2 million m3 although this is increased by more than an additional 2 million m3 if the bottom sediments accumulated in its immediate vicinity are taken into account. Compared to other such formations around the world, the delta is also unique in terms of its mechanical (municipal sewage sludge from the Kłodnica River mixed with coal sludge) and chemical (high contents of certain substances) composition. Tests of the sediments accumulated by the Kłodnica River demonstrate that they are polluted.

Keywords: delta, water body, water reservoirs, bottom sediments, Silesian Upland