DBPapers

URBAN WATER USE IN THE ARCTIC AND ITS EFFECTS ON FRESHWATER RESOURCES

E. Shestakova, I. Fedorova, R. Loktev, R. Kolesnikov, N. Alexeeva
Wednesday 19 December 2018 by Libadmin2018

ABSTRACT

Contribution of water use, other types of economic activities and natural features to the water pollution is still unclear. Previous researches outlines also that anthropogenic factors affecting water quality in urban areas differ from those in rural areas.
The purpose of this study is to identify effects on freshwater resources from urban water use in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District as a part of Russian Arctic. The study is based on regional and federal reports on the sanitary-epidemiological situation and environmental protection, schemes for the integrated use and protection of water resources, water supply and sanitation schemes for the settlements of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district as well as data obtained during the expedition to Priural’skiy district in summer 2018. During the expedition 24 water samples were collected. General ions were analysed in water samples by ion chromatograph. Heavy metals were analysed by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Data on temperature, oxygen concentration, pH, redox potential, total salinity, electrical conductivity was collected in situ for 22 monitoring points by portable sensors. It is established that for the large and medium-sized rivers of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District in 2000 there was a significant increase in water pollution compared to 1990. The Ob, Pur, Taz and Sob’ rivers with different watershed areas are dirty. Exceeding in 10 times of the normal values is observed for copper, phenols and petroleum hydrocarbons. Urban areas have the impact both on large-, medium and small-sized rivers and especially on lakes, which are characterized in the Arctic by low rates of self-purification. Field observations in Salekhard, Kharp, Labytnangi, Obskaya and Aksarka allowed us to establish that within the urban territories mechanical disturbances of the lake banks is typical as a result of thermal erosion. Overgrowing and increase in primary production are also common feature of water bodies in the northern settlements. This is due to a mechanical disturbance of soils and an introduction of pollutants with surface runoff. Small river ecosystems within urban areas are more resistant to external influences. Hydrochemical composition is more or less stable upstream and downstream from settlements. It is determined mainly by natural conditions.

Keywords: water use, urban areas, pollution, Arctic, Yamal–Nenets Autonomous District


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