D. Huska, Z. Jurekova
Thursday 11 October 2018 by Libadmin2018


In the recent years, the terrestrial landscape of Slovakia has been affected by extreme climate events. Unpredictable heavy torrential rains and local floods that are alternated by shorter or longer droughts are outward manifestations of the situation. According to the scenarios, in the future, climate change will affect the hydrological cycle, as well as water resources and it will have major consequences for the national economy. Slovakia is predominantly agricultural country (about 40%), affected by collectivization and large-scale technologies used on intensively cultivated soils. In the past 40 years, forestation has declined same as the area of permanent grassland and due to the extensive urbanization, the area of impermeable surfaces has increased. The currently disturbed hydronic regime requires an analysis of the landscape water regime and proposals for an innovative approach to water management. Databases of long-term climate parameters (precipitation, temperature, drainage, and evapotranspiration), hydrological balance and changes in sowing processes on arable land were used in elaboration of the paper. The area under consideration was the Bodva river basin, while the documents from the Land Portal, hydrological, hydro meteorological data and geobotanic maps were used as sources of information. It was confirmed that the ability of the basin to receive, retain and distribute atmospheric precipitation to groundwater is disturbed. The water consumption in the catchment area is mainly affected by agriculture and forested areas. Changes in the land use affect the water balance of the river basin by disrupting the relationship between rainfalls, evapotranspiration and water drainage from the basin. Evapotranspiration is growing exponentially (data from 1951), while additional potential increase was extrapolated there for the next 30 years. Knowledge about the water regime of the area and its potential is a tool for river basin management that can be used to assess the need for water for the individual sectors of agricultural production, propose limits, and ensure the re-assessment of sowing processes and measures in the country to create better conditions for accumulation of precipitation water.

Keywords: Climate change, water regime, drainage, agricultural crop production

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