DBPapers
DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017/54/S23.043

LAND REFORMS FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE LEGAL REGULATION AND PRACTICE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

J. Borska, S. Svejdarova
Tuesday 12 September 2017 by Libadmin2017

References: 17th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference SGEM 2017, www.sgem.org, SGEM2017 Conference Proceedings, ISBN 978-619-7408-11-9 / ISSN 1314-2704, 29 June - 5 July, 2017, Vol. 17, Issue 54, 335-342 pp, DOI: 10.5593/sgem2017/54/S23.043

ABSTRACT

Land reformations have always been the reflection of political, economic and legal circumstances. The politics of the governing elites has been realized through them. As governments changed in the time course, as well as their political priorities and the reasons for the adjustment of land management, the means and implications of the changes for land regulations evolved. Land reformations are organized in public interest, which is an ever-changing entity in the historical context. The Act No 229/1991 Coll., on the regulation of relations to land and other agricultural properties, as amended, has anchored the state’s responsibility for the return and restoration of ownership of agricultural and forestry lands and properties and the state has become bound to observe the interests of the economic growth of rural areas and of the protection of landmark and the environment. Act No 139/2002 Coll., on land reformations, as amended, enables the state to realize land reformations with regard to its own physical and financial limitations. A more detailed regulation can be found in the Decree No 13/2004 Coll., on the process of reformations and the necessary elements of proposed land reformations. Land reformations played a decisive role during the restorations of property in 1990s. At present, church restitutions are taking place. In this era, when humanity faces the negative effects of climatic changes and the sustainability of agricultural development is limited by the accessibility of natural resources, it is necessary to coordinate the interests of the rural areas with the common approach of all resorts and fields of activity. The conception of land reformations in the era between 2016 and 2020 includes the priorities regarding the ownership legal relationships related to immovable property, anti-flood and anti-erosion protection, and it also includes a complex view on the problem at question. The purpose of the Programme of Rural Development is to ensure a comparable position of Czech agriculture to other member states of the EU. One of the means of achieving this aim are land reformations, whose share within the overall budget of the Development Programme in 2014-2020 will be approximately 3.2% of the entire sum of 84.5 milliard CZK designated to support Czech forestry, agriculture and food production. The Czech Republic entails 13,100 of registered land regions. It is necessary to carry out land reform in 12,080 of the above. Those not included include regions of cities and mountains. Since 2010, there has been an investment of 9,676 billion CZK. The societal demand for land reformations is high in the Czech Republic and has a growing tendency. This includes long-term investment, which does not bring any immediate effect but is rather reflected in the strategy of long-term development.

Keywords: land reformation, rural development, land legislation, political context, environment